Orthodontics is the branch of dentistry that corrects the position of teeth and jaws positioned improperly. Crooked teeth or teeth that do not fit properly are difficult to be kept clean and can be lost early due to decay and periodontal disease.
Also cause additional stress to the chewing muscles that can lead to headaches, TMJ syndrome and pain in the neck , shoulders and back. Crooked teeth or poorly positioned also jeopardize its appearance.
There are various types of devices, both fixed and mobile. They are used to help move teeth , retrain muscles and change the mandibular growth. These appliances work by placing gentle pressure on the teeth and jaws. The severity of your problem is what will determine the most appropriate and most effective orthodontic procedure.
Only your dentist or orthodontist can determine whether you can benefit from orthodontics .
Based on diagnostic tools that include a full medical history and dental , a clinical exame, plaster molds of your teeth and photos and special X-rays the orthodontist or dentist can decide whether orthodontics are recommended, and develop a treatment plan for you.
If you have any of the below , you may be a candidate for an orthodontic treatment :
Overbite - Sometimes called " protruding teeth " - this problem is characterized by a vertical excess of the anterior maxilla and / or an over- eruption of teeth in this region . In the case of overbite , the upper front teeth overlying almost 100% of the lower teeth , giving an unpleasant smile and chewing problems. The lower teeth can even be touching the palate and the upper arch gums.
An appearance of " bulldog " when the lower teeth are too far forward or the upper teeth too far back.
Crossbite - occurs when the upper arch is not slightly ahead of the lower teeth when biting normally.
Bite openly space between the biting surfaces of the front teeth and / or side when the back teeth come together.
When there are too many teeth to accommodate the dental ridge .
Midline deviation - occurs when the center of the upper jaw is not aligned with the center of the lower jaw .
Spacing - gaps , or spaces , between the teeth as a result of missing teeth or teeth that do not meet the mouth..
This is the most common type of apparatus; It consists of bands , wires and / or brackets .
Bands are fixed around several teeth or tooth and used as anchors for the appliance , while brackets are attached on the outside of the tooth. The bow-shaped wires passed through the brackets and attached to the bands . Pressing the bow , teeth are pulled , moving gradually toward the correct position . Braces are usually adjusted monthly to obtain the desired results , which may occur within a few months to a few years. Currently they are smaller, lighter and show far less metal than in the past. They come in bright colors for kids as well as clear styles preferred by many adults.
Special fixed appliances
Used to control the habit of thumb sucking or tongue " prey " , these appliances are attached to the teeth by bands. Because they are very uncomfortable during meals, they should be used only as a last resort .
Maintainer of fixed space
If a baby tooth is lost prematurely, a space is used to keep the space open until the permanent tooth erupts . A band is attached to the tooth next to the empty space and a wire is extended to the tooth on the other side of space.
An alternative to traditional braces for adults, serial aligners are being used by an increasing number of orthodontists to move teeth in the same way that fixed appliances, only without metal wires and brackets. Aligners are virtually invisible and removable so that the user can feed, brushing and flossing.
Removable space maintainers
These devices serve the same function as fixed space maintainers. They are made with an acrylic base that fits over the jaw, and have plastic or wire branches between specific teeth to be kept separate.
Jaw repositioning appliances
Also called splints, these devices are worn on the upper or lower jaw, and help to "train" the jaw to close in a more favorable position. They are used for temporomandibular joint disorders (TMJ).
Bumpers lips and cheeks
They are designed to keep the lips or cheeks away from the teeth. The muscles of the lips and cheeks can exert pressure on the teeth and the bumpers help relieve that pressure.
A device used to widen the arch of the upper jaw. It consists of a plastic plate that fits over the roof of the mouth. The external pressure applied to the plate by screws force the joints of the bones of the palate to open lengthwise, widening the palatal area.
Used roof of the mouth, these devices prevent shifting of the teeth to their previous position. They can also be modified and used to prevent thumb sucking.
With this device, a band is placed around the back of the head and attached to a metal wire in front, or face bow. Headgear slows the growth of the jaw and holds the back teeth where they are while the front teeth are pulled back.